- 来(Lái, come)
- 去(Qù, go)
- 上来(Shànglái, come up)
- 上去(Shàngqù, go up)
- 下来(Xiàlái, come down)
- 下去(Xiàqù, go down)
- 出来(Chūlái, come out)
- 出去(Chūqù, go out)
- 进来 (Jìnlái, come in)
- 进去(Jìnqù, go in)
- 回来(Huílái, come back)
- 回去(Huíqù, go back)
- 过来(Guòlái, come here)
- 过去(Guòqù, go over)
The Simple directional complement “ verb+来/去”
In Chinese, Directional Complements (趋向补语 or qūxiàng bǔyǔ) describe the direction of a verb. The most basic and common form of a Directional Complement combines a verb with either 来 (Lái, come) or 去 (Qù, go):
Verb + 来 or 去
When using Directional Complements, it’s essential to consider the speaker’s position. They can be used in a variety of situations and with different verbs. Use 来 when the action moves towards the speaker or becomes closer in any way, and use 去 when the action moves away from the speaker or becomes more distant.
Directional complement examples:
There are many situations where you can use these simple compounds.
Here are some examples:
(Wǒ zài lóu shàng, qǐng nǐ shí fēnzhōng yǐhòu shànglái.)
I’m upstairs. Please come up in ten minutes.
(Zài shù shàng wán hěn wēixiǎn, nǐ kuài xiàlái!)
It’s too dangerous to play in the tree! Come down!
(Nǐ zài lóu shàng děng wǒ yíxià. Wǒ yìhuǐ’er jiù shàngqù zhǎo nǐ.)
Please wait upstairs for a moment. I’m coming up in a few seconds.
(Wǒ zài lóu xià, nǐ gǎnkuài xiàlái ba.)
I’m downstairs. Please come down to me.
(Lǐmiàn rén tài duōle, nǐmen chūlái tòu tòuqì ba.)
There are too many people inside. You guys need to come outside and have some fresh air.
(Qǐng jìnlái ba.)
Please come on in.
(Tāmen zài wàimiàn, zánmen chūqù gēn tāmen jiànmiàn.)
They are outside. Let ‘s go out and meet them.
(Tā zài bàngōngshì lǐ děng nǐ, nǐ kuài jìnqù ba.)
He is waiting for you in his office. You can go in now.
More examples with other verbs:
(Nǐ shénme shíhou huílái?)
When will you come back?
(Wǒ yìhuǐ’er jiù huíqù.)
I’ll be home in a minute.
(Wǒmen guòqù kàn kàn.)
Let’s go over and take a look.
(Kuài guòlái, wǒmen zài zhè’er děng nǐmen!)
Come here, we are waiting for you!
Directional complements are an essential aspect of the Chinese language that describe the direction of a verb. By combining a verb with 来 (lái, come) or 去 (qù, go), we can convey the movement of an action in relation to the speaker. It’s crucial to consider the position of the speaker and the direction of the action to use the correct corresponding complement. With practice and attention to detail, anyone can master the use of these complements in Chinese and improve their language proficiency.
To discover this topic in more detail and see more examples, check out our video explaining the basic and expanded uses of Directional Complements in Chinese.