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3.1 – The Summary of 应该(yīnggāi)

应该 1

  • Auxiliary Verb,which means should or ought to do something.

e.g.

迟到了,我们应该早点出发的。(Chídào le, wǒmen yīnɡɡāi zǎodiǎn chūfā de.)

过马路的时候应该小心。(Guò mǎlù de shíhou yīnɡɡāi xiǎoxīn.)

  • Affirmative-Negative:应不应该=应该不应该

e.g.

我们应不应该告诉他这件事呢?=我们应该不应该告诉他这件事呢?

(Wǒmen yīnɡ bu yīnɡɡāi ɡàosu tā zhè jiàn shì ne?) (Wǒmen yīnɡɡāi bu yīnɡɡāi ɡàosu tā zhè jiàn shì ne?)

应该 2

  • to indicate that one reckons that something is bound to be so.

e.g.

这本书应该是张老师的。(Zhè běn shū yīnɡɡāi shì Zhānɡ lǎoshī de.)

这个房子应该有很长的历史了。(Zhè ɡe fánɡzi yīnɡɡāi yǒu hěn chánɡ de lìshǐ le.)

他下个星期应该就可以出院了。(Tā xià ɡe xīnɡqī yīnɡɡāi jiù kěyǐ chūyuàn le.)

3.2 – The Summary of the Separable Words 离合词

  • General verbs: “AB”

e.g. “研究”,    “商量”,    “检查”, ……

  • Separable verbs:
  • “AB”;
  • “A……B”

e.g.“见面”,    “结婚”,    “睡觉”, ……

A+ sentence elements + B

Note:

The common sentence elements we can insert:

Quantitative complement

Dynamic auxiliary

Time complement

A+ time complement + B

e.g.

他 昨天   睡了  三个  小时 觉。( tā zuótiān shuì le sān ge xiǎoshí jiào. )

玛丽 了一个 月   。( mǎ lì  zhù le yī ge yuè yuàn. )

Momentum complement

A+ momentum complement + B

e.g.

今天 开 了 三个 会。(jīntiān kāi le sān ge huì. )

我 和他 吃  过 一次 饭。(wǒ hé tā chī guò yī cìfàn.)

Dynamic auxiliary

A+ // + B

e.g.

我们正在上着课,他进来了。 ( wǒmen zhèngzài shàng zhe kè, tā jìnlai le. )

你毕了业以后,在哪里工作?  ( nǐ bì le yè yǐhòu, zài nǎlǐ gōngzuò? )

我在北京留过学。 (wǒ zài Běijīng liú guò xué. )

  • Reduplication form

Separable verbAAB

e.g.

洗洗澡(xǐ xǐ zǎo)

3.3 – The Extended Usages of Interrogative Pronouns

  • refer to every member within a certain scope.

e.g.

我什么都没干。(wǒ shénme dōu méi ɡàn.)

哪儿都找不到他的手机。(Nǎ’r dōu zhǎo bú dào tā de shǒujī.)

  • be used to replace non-mentionable or unclear people or things.

e.g.

这个人我好像在哪里见过。(Zhè ɡe rén wǒ hǎoxiànɡ zài nǎlǐ jiàn ɡuò.)

让我看看冰箱里有什么。(Rànɡ wǒ kàn kɑn bīnɡxiānɡ lǐ yǒu shénme.)

3.4 – The Comparison Between 一下(yīxià) vs 一会儿(yīhuǐ’er)

Similarity 1

  • Verb + 一会儿/一下

e.g.

等一下。(Děnɡ yí xià.)

等一会儿。(Děnɡ yí huì’r.)

Similarity 2
People/Personal Pronoun

(Verb + Object + 一下/一会儿)

e.g.

等我一会儿。(Děnɡ wǒ yí huì’r.)

(Verb + 一下 /一会儿+  People/Personal Pronoun/other object)

e.g.

等一会儿我。(Děnɡ yí huì’r wǒ.)

看了一会儿书。(Kàn le yí huì’r shū.)

Difference 1:
verb +
一下

(indicate doing something once or attempting to do something)

e.g.

他打了我一下。(Tā dǎ le wǒ yí xià.)

尝一下这个汤。(Chánɡ yí xià zhè ɡe tānɡ.)

Difference 2
verb +
一会儿

(as a time adverbial, meaning in a short period of time)

e.g.

他一会儿就到。(Tā yí huì’r jiù dào.)

我一会儿再睡觉。(Wǒ yí huì’r zài shuìjiào.)

3.5 – The Use Summary of 才(cái)

Meaning & usage 1

  • Adverb
  • It indicates something or action happen very late.

Structure:

time/the words indicating time +  + action/something

e.g.

我 10 点      起床。 ( wǒ  shí diǎn cái qǐchuáng. )

他 40 岁 才 结婚。( tā  sì shí suì cái jiéhūn. )

Meaning & usage 2

  • Adverb
  • It indicates the number is small or time is early .

Structure:

  + quantity/time

e.g.

这家饭店才有2个服务员。 ( zhè jiā fàndiàn cái yǒu liǎng gè fúwù yuán. )

玛丽学汉语 才 一个月。 ( mǎ lì xué hànyǔ cái yī ge yuè. )

3.6 – The Comparsion Between 才(cái ) vs 就(jiù)

  • Adverb
  • It indicates something or action happen very late.

structure:

time/the words indicating time +  + action/something

(The time is very late)

就:

  • Adverb
  • It indicates something or action happen very early.

structure:

 time/the words indicating time +  + action/something +

(The time is very early)

e.g.

我12点睡觉。( wǒ  shí èr diǎn cái shuìjiào. )

我5点就起床了。 ( wǒ wǔ diǎn jiù qǐchuáng le. )

3.7 – The Comparison Between 还是(háishì) vs 或者(huòzhě)

还是

  • It shows the action/behavior/state of something/someone remain unchanged.

structure:

Subject + 还是 + verb/adj./noun

e.g.

我还是不明白。 ( wǒ hái shìbù míngbai. )

  • It shows making a decision after comparison or a second thought.

structure:

Subject + 还是 + verb/verbal phrase

e.g.

天快 黑 了,你还是别出去 了。( tiān kuài hēi le, nǐ hái shì bié chū qù le. )

  • It is used in an interrogative sentence to ask for the choice.

structure:

A + 还是 + B

e.g.

你想喝咖啡还是茶? ( nǐ xiǎng hē kāfēi  hái shì chá? )

或者

It is used in a declarative sentence, showing the parallel relationship.

structure:

A + 或者 + B

e.g.

有不懂的问题,就来问我,或者去问同学。 ( yǒu bù dǒng de wèntí, jiù lái wèn wǒ, huò zhě qù wèn tóngxué.)

3.8 – The Comparison between 的(de) vs 得(de) vs 地(de)

//

  • [de]
  • auxiliary word
  • only function on gramma

attributes + + modified

e.g.

这是中国的绿茶。(Zhè shì Zhōnɡɡuó de lǜchá.)

adverbial + + verb/verbal word 

(To show the state or mode of an action.)

e.g.

她安安静静地坐着。(Tā ān an jìnɡ jinɡ de zuò zhe.)

verb + + complement

(To indicate the result the verb leads to or the state of something.)

e.g.

饭做得很好吃。

(Fàn zuò de hěn hǎo chī.)

3.9 – The Comparison between 又(yòu) vs 再(zài) vs 还(hái)

the repetition of certain action which has happened.

(happened)

e.g.

又说了一遍。(Yòu shuō le yí biàn.)

the repetition of certain action which is going to happen.

(will happen)

e.g.

再说一遍。(Zài shuō yí biàn.)

the repetition of certain action which stress someone’s desire or intention.

(desire to happen)

e.g.

这个好吃,我还要两个。(Zhè ɡe hǎo chī, wǒ hái yào liǎnɡ gè.)

3.10 – Except or Besides – The Summary of 除了(chúle)

Structure

除了……以外,都……   Except

e.g.

  苹果  以外,我  什么     不  想   吃。

( chú le píngguǒ yǐ wài,   wǒ shénme dōu bù xiǎng chī. )

除了  数学 以外,我 都   喜欢。

( chú le shùxué yǐ wài,   wǒ dōu xǐhuan. )

structure

除了……以外,还/……  In addition / besides

e.g.

除 了  英国  以外, 我 还  去 过   法国 和 日本。

( chú le yīngguó yǐ wài,   wǒ hái qù guò fǎguó hé rìběn. )

除了  英语 以外,我 还 会说汉语。

( chú le yīngyǔ yǐ wài,   wǒ hái huì shuō hànyǔ. )

3.11 – The Summary of the Dynamic Auxiliary Word 着(zhe)

着 1

Dynamic auxiliary word:着

Meaning:it indicates the state is continuous or the action is in progress.

Usage :verb/adjective +

e.g.

门  开  着 呢。

( mén kāi zhe ne. )

着 2

Dynamic auxiliary word:着

Meaning:it indicates the way/manner in which the action/behavior occurs.

Usage :action + 着 + action

e.g.

不 要  躺     看书。

( bù yào tǎng zhe kànshū. )

着 3

Dynamic auxiliary word:着

Meaning:it shows the “existence”

Usage :place + verb + 着 + noun

e.g.

桌子 上 放 着 一 本 书。

( zhuō zi shàng fàng zhe yī běn shū. )

着 4

Dynamic auxiliary word:着

Meaning:it shows while one action is in progress, another action occurs.

Usage :action + 着  + acton

e.g.

他 听 着  歌 睡着 了。

( tā tīng zhe gē shuìzháo le. )

3.12 – The Summary of 把 Sentence (Part 1)

Change:

Position moving:

Subject +  + object + verb + / + place

e.g.

他把椅子 搬 到     前面   了。

( tā bǎ  yǐzi   bān dào qiánmiàn le. )

Ownership changing:

Subject +  + object + verb +  ……

e.g.

他把礼物寄给 妈妈 了。

( tā bǎ  lǐwù  jì gěi māma le. )

Form/shape changing:

Subject +  + object + verb +  ……

e.g.

你把 “百”写成  “白” 了。

( nǐ  bǎ    “bǎi” xiěchéng “bái”    le. )

State changing:

Subject +  + object + verb + /

e.g.

你把 饭 吃 了。

( nǐ bǎ fàn chī le. )

Complement:

Subject + + object + verb + complement

(Result complementDirectional complementQuantitative complement)

e.g.

请 把  课文 读   两遍。

( qǐng bǎ kèwén dú liǎngbiàn. )

Negation Structure 

Subject + 没/不/别 +  + object + verb + other parts

e.g.

他 没 把 这 个 字 写 对。

( tā méi bǎ zhè ge zì   xiě duì. )

3.13 – The Summary of 把 Sentence (Part 2)

Notice 1:  predicate

Subject +  + object + verb + result

Subject +  + object + adjective + degree complement

e.g.

这两天坏了。

( zhè liǎngtiān  wǒ máng huài le. )

Notice 2:  predicate + other elements

Subject +  + object + verb + / + place

Subject +  + object + verb +  ……

Subject +  + object + verb +  ……

Subject +  + object + verb + /

Subject +  + object + adjective + degree complement

Notice 3:   what type of verbs

Subject +  + object + verb + result

(verb: Have the meaning of “handling”)

The following categories of verbs can not appear in sentence

  • The verbs of judgement or state, such as:

是,有,在……

  • The verbs of expressing mentality or sense, such as:

知道,觉得,同意,喜欢,希望,看见……

Notice 4:  what type of object

Subject +  + object + verb + result

(The people or things we have mentioned or knownthe specific and certain things)

Notice 5:  the location of auxiliary verbs

Subject +  + object + verb + result

(Auxiliary verbs:想, 愿意,可能,应该, 敢,……)

3.14 – The Summary of the Passive Sentence with 被(bèi)

Definitionexpressing passive

Structure:

Subject + + object + verb + other element

e.g.

我  老师 批评 了。

( wǒ bèi lǎoshī pīpíng le. )

Notice 1: object can be omitted

e.g.

我    (妈妈)     醒 了。

( wǒ  bèi (māma)  jiào xǐng le. )

Notice 2: the element after verb can not be omitted

e.g.

书     小明  走了

(shū bèi xiǎomíng ná zǒu le. )

Notice 3: strong action

The verbs without expressing strong action can not appear in sentence

The verbs of judgement or state, such as:

是,有,在……

Notice 4: the location of negative adverb and auxiliary verb

Subject + negative verbs/auxiliary verbs  + object + verb + other element

e.g.

衣服 没 被 洗 干净 。

(yīfu méi bèi xǐ gānjìng. )

Notice 5 : the substitute of the word “

In oral Chinese, “” can be replaced by “” (jiào )or “”(ràng)

The object after “” or “” can not be omitted

e.g.

我 的自行车 叫 他 骑走了 。

(wǒ de zìxíngchē jiào tā  qí zǒu le. )

3.15 – The Difference between 跟…一样(gēn…yīyàng) vs 像…一样(xiàng…yīyàng)

  • Pattern1: A + + B + 一样

There is little difference between A and B.

e.g.

你的电脑跟我的一样。

(Nǐ de diànnǎo ɡēn wǒ de yíyànɡ.)

  • Pattern 2: A + + B + 一样 + adj./verb/verbal phrase

e.g.

这张床跟那张床一样大。

(Zhè zhānɡ chuánɡ ɡēn nà zhānɡ chuánɡ yíyànɡ dà.)

  • A + + B + 一样

To indicate A and B are similar to each other in some areas.

e.g.

她就像我妈妈一样。

(Tā jiù xiànɡ wǒ māmɑ yíyànɡ.)

3.16 – The Summary of ‘more and more’ in Chinese – 越(yuè)…越(yuè)

  • :越 + Verb1/Adj.1 + + Verb2/Adj.2

(the latter changes with the preceding’s  change.)

e.g.

雨越下越大。(Yǔ yuè xià yuè dà.)

Pattern 1Same subject

Subject + + Verb1/Adj.1 + + Verb2/Adj.2

e.g.

他走路,越走越快。

(Tā zǒu lù, yuè zǒu yuè kuài.)

Pattern 2different subjects

Subject1 + + V.1/Adj.1 , Subject2 + + V.2/Adj.2

e.g.

她越哭,我越烦。(Tā yuè kū, wǒ yuè fán.)

  • 越来越 + Adj./ Verb/ Verbal phrase

(the degree deepens as time goes on)

e.g.

她越来越瘦。

(Tā yuè lái yuè shòu.)

Note:

adverb of degree should not appear before adjectives or verbs.

e.g.

我们聊得越来越很高兴。X

(Wǒmen liáo de yuèláiyuè hěn ɡāoxìnɡ.) X

3.17 – The Summary of Rhetorical Sentence – 反问句

Rhetorical questions:  反 问 句

  • It expresses the opinion or emotion of the speakers.
  • The tone in rhetorical questions is stronger than

declarative sentences.

Attention:

  • It is not the real interrogative sentence.
  • It doesn’t need to be replied by the other side.

Type 1:

不是……吗?

  • It expresses a reminder to the other side.
  • It shows the feeling of surprising, dissatisfied, etc.

Type 2:

Usage :It expresses the tone with nterrogative pronouns,

such as “什么”, “怎么”, “哪儿”, “谁”, etc.

Meaning:It shows the tone of incomprehension, dissent, surprising, etc.

Attention:It is the non-interrogative use of the interrogative pronouns; the interrogative pronounces show tones only.

3.18 – The Summary of the Directional Complements

Concept:

the complement of  direction;

to indicate the direction or displacement of an action;

the direction it indicates is based on the location of speakers or the location of  things the speaker is talking about.

Structure:

Verb + directional complement + (object)

  • Simple Structure

Verb + directional complement + (object)

(monosyllabic directional verbs)

  • common simple directional complement
  • 来;去;上;下;进;出;回;过;起;开

e.g.

妈妈  刚刚 打  一个 电话。

( māma gānggāng dă lái  yī gè diànhuà. )

  • Compound Structure

Verb + directional complement + (object)

(disyllable directional verbs)

  • common compound directional complement

Attention

  • object: place / location

compound directional complementAB

Verb + A + object + B

(Object: place words/location)

  • object: all the words apart from places words

compound directional complementAB

Verb + A + object + B

Verb + AB + object

(Object: all the words apart from places words)

  • Extended usage of “下去
  • Original usage: indicating the displacement is from high to low, the direction is away from the speaker.
  • Extended usage: after verb/adjective; indicating the action or situation is continuous.
  • Extended usage of “
  • Original usage: indicating the displacement is from low to high,the direction is away from the speaker.
  • Extended usage: after verb;expressing the evaluation or estimation about something.
  • Extended usage of “出来
  • Original usage: indicating the displacement is from inside to outside, the direction is approaching the speaker.
  • Extended usage: expressing recognitionindicating something comes from nothing, orbecomes visible from concealment.
  • Extended usage of “过来” “过去
  • Original usage: indicating the direction of movement.
  • Extended usage: indicating the change of situation.

V + “过来” :  the situation changes from unusual to normal

V + “过去” : the satiation changes from normal to unusual.

3.19 – The summary of the common construction 一(yī) …就(jiù)…

Usage 1: indicate actions

Subject + + action1 + + action 2

e.g.

哥哥一回家就看电视。(Gēɡe yì huíjiā jiù kàn diànshì.)

Usage 1: subject

(subject(s) must before “” and “”)

e.g.

我一回到家就睡觉。(Wǒ yì huí dào jiā jiù shuìjiào.)

(same subject)

闹钟一响,我就立刻醒了。(Nàozhōnɡ yì xiǎnɡ, wǒ jiù lìkè xǐnɡ le.)

(different subject)

Usage 2: condition + result

e.g.

我一紧张就脸红。

(Wǒ yì jǐnzhānɡ jiù liǎn hónɡ.)

3.20 – The summary of the common construction 不但(bùdàn)…而且(érqiě)…

Usage 1: same subject

(subject must before “不但”)

e.g.

我不但会跳舞,而且会唱歌。

(Wǒ búdàn huì tiàowǔ, ěrqiě huì chànɡɡē.)

Usage 2: different subjects

(subjects must after “不但” and “而且”)

e.g.

不但我喜欢她,而且我的好朋友也喜欢她。

(Búdàn wǒ xǐhuɑn tā, ěrqiě wǒ de hǎo pénɡyou yě xǐhuɑn tā.)

3.21 – The summary of the common construction 就是(jiùshì)

……,就是……

  • to indicate a turning relation (a mild tone)

e.g.

他是不错,就是他不喜欢吃辣的,我不能接受。

(Tā shì bú cuò, jiùshì tā bù xǐhuɑn chī là de, wǒ bù nénɡ jiēshòu.)

不是……,就是……

  • 2 clauses with each giving a choice, A or B.

e.g.

他不是日本人,就是韩国人。

(Tā búshì Rìběn rén, jiùshì Hánɡuó rén.)

3.22 – The summary of the common construction 如果(rúguǒ)…就(jiù)…

Usage 1: same subject

(subject usually after “如果” and before“”)

e.g.

如果你想喝果汁,你就自己拿。

(Rúɡuǒ nǐ xiǎnɡ hē ɡuǒzhī, nǐ jiù zìjǐ ná.)

Usage 2: different subject

(subject1 usually after“如果”) (subject2 should before“”)

e.g.

如果你通过HSK5级,我就请你吃饭。

(Rúɡuǒ nǐ tōnɡɡuò HSK5 jí, wǒ jiù qǐnɡ nǐ chīfàn.)

Usage 3oral

(Can omit “如果”or “” in oral)

e.g.

如果事情多,我可能会晚一点回家。

(Rúɡuǒ shìqínɡ duō, wǒ kěnénɡ huì wǎn yì diǎn huíjiā.)

3.23 – The summary of the common construction 只有(zhǐyǒu)…才(cái)…

只有: only condition

才: corresponding result

e.g.

你只有在家里才能玩手机。

(Nǐ zhǐyǒu zài jiālǐ cái nénɡ wán shǒujī.)

3.24 – The summary of the common construction 一…也都(yī…yě dū ) + 不没(bùméi)…

  • to negate something with a strong tone

e.g.

我一毛钱都没有。

(Wǒ yì máo qián dōu méiyǒu.)

General Negation

我包里没书。

(Wǒ bāo lǐ méi shū.)

/ + /

我包里一本书都没有。

(Wǒ bāo lǐ yì běn shū dōu méi yǒu.)

3.25 – The summary of the common construction 又(yòu)…又(yòu)…

to indicate that the subject possesses two qualities or involves two conditions.

  • + Adj.1 + + Adj.2

should be either positive or negative in one sentence.

e.g.

我们都又渴又累。

(Wǒmen dōu yòu kě yòu lèi.)

  • Subject + + V.1/VP.1 + + V.2/VP.2

e.g.

他又爱玩又不肯工作。

(Tā yòu ài wán yòu bù kěn ɡōnɡzuò.)

3.26 – The summary of the common construction 一边(yībiān)…一边(yībiān)…

Usage 1

  • Express one subject doing two things at the same time

Sentence structure

Subject + 一边 + Action A + 一边 + Action B

e.g.

琳  达     一 边   看  电   视  , 一 边     玩  手   机 。
(Lín dá yì biān kàn diànshì,yì biān wán shǒujī.)

Usage 2

  • Express two subjects doing something respectively at the same time

Sentence Structure
Subject A +
一边 + Action A, Subject B + 一边 + Action B

e.g.

天一 边 下雨 ,他 一 边  洗车。
(Tiān yì biān xià yǔ ,tā yì biān xǐ chē. )

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