skip to Main Content

4.1 – The Two Usages of the Word 并 (bìnɡ)

1

(Adverb)

Meaning: to emphasize the negative mood   

Structure:  ……并不/并没(有)……

e.g.

这道题并不难。

(Zhè dào tí bìnɡ bù nán.)

这本书并不是我买的。

(Zhè běn shū bìnɡ bú shì wǒ mǎi de.)

 

2

(Conjunction word)

Meaning: to join two parts indicating a further meaning

(and, what`s more)

Structure:  often followed by double syllable words

e.g.

他把书看完了并还给了我。

(Tā bǎ shū kàn wán le bìnɡ huái ɡěi le wǒ.)

修理人员检查并修好了我的电脑。

(Xiūlǐ rényuán jiǎnchá bìnɡ xiū hǎo le wǒ de diànnǎo.)

 

4.2 – The Usage Summary about 3 Structures of 却 (què)

(Adverb)

Meaning: To connect two parts; To indicate a slight turn

 

Structure 1

  • 尽管/虽然/即使………………

e.g.

尽管那个地方很危险,他却仍然要去。

(Jǐnguǎn nà ge dìfāng hěn wēixiǎn, tā què réngrán yào qù.)

虽然刚开始他说不参加,最后却来了。

(Suīrán gāng kāishǐ tā shuō bù cānjiā, zuìhòu què lái le.)

 

Structure 2

  • (明明)……,却 + /偏偏/反而/反倒……

e.g.

我们特地来找他,他却偏/偏偏不在。

(Wǒmen tèdì lái zhǎo tā, tā què piān/piān piān bú zài.)

明明是他打碎了,他却反而不承认。

(Míng míng shì tā dǎ suì le, tā què fǎn ér bù chéngrèn.)

上面写着他的名字,他却反倒说不知道。

(Shàngmiàn xiě zhe tā de míngzì, tā què fǎn dào shuō bù zhīdào.)

 

Structure 3

  • ……,但/但是 + ……

e.g.

书找到了,但/但是却不是我要的那个版本。

(Shū zhǎo dào le, dàn/dànshì què bú shì wǒ yào de nà gè bǎnběn.)

他学了两年汉语,但/但是却一句汉话都说不出来。

(Tā xué le liǎng nián hànyǔ, dàn/dànshì què yī jù hànyǔ dōu shuō bù chūlái.)

 

4.3 – The Two Expanded Usages of 通过 (tōnɡ ɡuò )

通过

(Preposition)

Meaning: to indicate a way taken or a method used to achieve certain purpose   

Structure: 通过+ noun/ verb/ nominal phrase/ verbal phrase

 

Expanded usage 1

(verb)

Meaning: something goes through from one side to the other side

e.g.

这条路不能通过。

(Zhè tiáo lù bù nénɡ tōnɡɡuò.)

去超市的话,你必须要通过一座桥。

(Qù chāoshì de huà, nǐ bìxū yào tōnɡɡuò yí zuò qiáo.)

 

Expanded usage 2

(verb)

Meaning: which means (of a motion, bill, etc.) pass, adopt.

e.g.

我们都通过了考试。

(Wǒmen dōu tōnɡɡuò le kǎoshì.)

大家讨论并通过了你的方案。

(Dàjiā tǎolùn bìnɡ tōnɡɡuò le nǐ de fānɡ’àn.)

 

4.4 – The Four Usages Summary of 由 (yóu)

1

(Preposition)

Meaning: It is used to introduce a reason or source.

Structure:  + reason/source + verb(导致/引起/决定/提供……)

e.g.

我的感冒是由昨天的大风引起的。

(wǒ de gǎnmào shì yóu zuótiān de dà fēng yǐn qǐ de.)

这次堵车是由一场交通事故导致的。

(zhè cì dǔchē shì yóu yì chǎng jiāotōng shìgù dǎozhì de.)

 

2

(Preposition)

Meaning: It is used to introduce the starting point, route or places.

Structure:  + place+ verb(开始/出发……)

e.g.

这一趟航班由北京出发,最后到达深圳。

(zhè yí tàng hángbān yóu Běijīng chūfā, zuìhòu dàodá Shēnzhèn. )

这次旅行,我由上海开始,经过厦门,最后去了广州。

( zhè cì lǚxíng, wǒ yóu Shànghǎi kāishǐ, jīngguò Xiàmén, zuìhòu qù le Guǎngzhōu. )

 

3

(Preposition)

Meaning: It is used to introduce the person who is in charge of something.

Structure:  + someone + verb(负责//管理/办理……)

e.g.

这个班由你来教。

(zhè ge bān yóu nǐ lái jiāo. )

这个部门的工作由我负责。

(zhè ge bùmén de gōngzuò yóu wǒ fùzé.)

 

4

(Preposition)

Meaning: It draws forth the result or conclusion. (written Chinese)

Structure: 由此,…… Thus/therefore/from here, ……

e.g.

由此我们可以知道,天下没有免费的午餐。

( yóu cǐ wǒmen kěyǐ zhīdao, tiān xià méiyǒu miǎnfèi de wǔcān. )

他常常很晚回家。由此我们猜到,他可能还没结婚。

( tā chángcháng hěn wǎn huíjiā. Yóucǐ wǒmen cāi dào, tā kěnéng hái méi jiéhūn.)

 

4.5 – The Two Usages of the Word 而 (ér)

1

(Conjunction word)

Meaning: to link two parts to show juxtaposition or complement

e.g.

她有一双大而亮的眼睛。

(Tā yǒu yì shuānɡ dà ér liànɡ de yǎnjinɡ.)

我喜欢聪明而美丽的女孩。

(Wǒ xǐhuɑn cōnɡmínɡ ér měilì de nǚhái.)

 

2

(Conjunction word)

Meaning: to link sentence elements indicating the reasons, objectives or a turn.

e.g.

温度会随着高度的升高而降低。

(Wēndù huì suízhe ɡāodù de shēnɡɡāo ér jiànɡdī.)

他为了能去中国留学而努力学习汉语。

(Tā wèi le nénɡ qù Zhōnɡɡuó liúxué ér nǔlì xuéxí hànyǔ.)

中国北方比较干燥,而中国南方比较湿润。

(Zhōnɡɡuó běifānɡ bǐjiào ɡānzào, ér Zhōnɡɡuó nánfānɡ bǐjiào shīrùn.)

 

4.6 – The Summary of Pivotal Sentence: 兼语句 – 使 (shǐ)

使 : make (Literacy Word)

Structure: 使 B + verb/verbal phrase

e.g.

这次进步使我有了很大的动力。

(zhè cì jìnbù shǐ wǒ yǒu le hěn dà de dònglì. )

他的话使我明白了很多道理。

(tā de huà shǐ wǒ míngbai le hěn duō dàolǐ. )

 

4.7 – The Usages of the Measure Words – 次(cì) / 遍(biàn) / 趟(tàng) / 场(chǎng)

(cì)

(Verbal Measure Word)

To modify the actions which can be repeated

e.g.

我们见过一次。

(Wǒmen jiàn guò yī cì.)

HSK4我考了四次也没过。

(HSK4 wǒ kǎo le sì cì yě méi guò.)

 

(biàn)

(Verbal Measure Word)

To emphasize the whole process of an action from the beginning to the end.

e.g.

请再说一遍。

(Qǐng zài shuō yí biàn.)

这本书我看了两遍。

(Zhè běn shū wǒ kàn le liǎng biàn.)

 

(tàng)

(Verbal Measure Word)

To indicate the whole process of going to and returning from a place.

e.g.

这些东西一趟搬不完。

(Zhè xiē dōngxi yí tàng bān bù wán.)

我去了两趟,他都不在。

(Wǒ qù le liǎng tàng, tā dōu bú zài.)

 

(chǎng)

(Nominal Measure Word)

refers to the whole process of doing something, and is often used to modify variety shows or sports games

e.g.

我想和你打一场比赛。

(Wǒ xiǎng hé nǐ dǎ yì chǎng bǐsài.)

一年有几场汉语考试?

(Yìnián yǒu jǐ chǎng hànyǔ kǎoshì?)

 

4.8 – The Comparison Between Two “Think” : 以为(yǐwéi) vs 认为(rènwéi)

认为 (rènwéi)

(verb)

Meaning:  to give a positive opinion according to a certain objective reflection and reasoning.

e.g.

他认为他才是冠军。

(Tā rènwéi tā cái shì ɡuànjūn.)

他们认为这件事是我的错。

(Tāmen rènwéi zhè jiàn shì shì wǒ de cuò.)

 

以为 (yǐwéi)

(verb)

Meaning: to make a judgement in a lighter tone. The conclusion after “以为” is often not true.

e.g.

我以为你不回来了呢。

(Wǒ yǐwéi nǐ bù huílái le ne.)

你们以为这件事我什么都不知道吗?

(Nǐmen yǐwéi zhè jiàn shì wǒ shénme dōu bù zhīdào ma?)

 

Notice:

被(……)认为  (bèi(……)rènwéi) 

被(……)以为  (bèi(……)yǐwéi) ×

 

让……以为  (rànɡ……yǐwéi) 

让……认为  (rànɡ……yǐwéi) ×

 

4.9 – The Usages and Comparison Between 另(lìng) VS 另外(lìngwài)

(demonstrative pronoun; adverb)

Meaning: another, additionally

Structure:

+ Numeral measure words + noun

+ v. + n.

e.g.

明天我没有时间,我们另找一天见面吧?

(míngtiān wǒ méiyǒu shíjiān, wǒmen lìng zhǎo yī tiān jiànmiàn ba ? )

除了上海,我还去过中国另外的几个地方。

(chú le Shànghǎi, wǒ hái qù guò zhōngguó lìngwài de jǐ ge dìfang. )

 

另外

(demonstrative pronoun; adverb; conjunction)

Meaning: another, additionally, besides, in addition

Structure:

另外的 + n.

另外 + // + verb + noun

……,另外,……

e.g.

你要多休息,另外,要按时吃药。

(nǐ yào duō xiūxi, lìngwài, yào ànshí chīyào.)

运动对身体有好处,另外,对心理健康也有好处。

(yùndòng duì shēntǐ yǒu hǎochù, lìngwài, duì xīnlǐ jiànkāng yě yǒu hǎochù. )

 

4.10 – The Comparison Between Two Time Words 及时(jí shí) vs 按时(àn shí)

及时

(adjective)

Meaning: timely, promptly

Structure:

  • Adverb + 及时
  • Verb + +及时
  • 及时+ + verb

e.g.

这场雨下得很及时。

(zhè chǎng yǔ xià de hěn jíshí. )

如果有什么变化,请及时地告诉我。

(rúguǒ yǒu shénme biànhuà, qǐng jíshí de gàosù wǒ. )

 

按时

(adverb)

Meaning: on time, on schedule

Structure:

按时 + verb

e.g.

明天的会议很重要,请你一定要按时参加。

(míngtiān de huì yì hěn zhòngyào, qǐng nǐ yídìng yào ànshí cānjiā. )

好好休息,按时吃药,你很快就会康复了。

(hǎo hǎo xiūxi, ànshí chī yào, nǐ hěn kuài jiù huì kāngfù le. )

 

4.11 – The Comparison Between Two “Originally” 本来(běnlái) vs 原来(yuán lái)

本来

Meaning:

  • Originally; at first; in the past

It indicates the situation at present is different from what is was before.

  • Something should have been in a certain state based on reason.

 

Structure:

本来 + noun

 

Notes:

Abstract nouns

Previous state has changed

 

e.g.

这里本来有一座旧房子,现在拆掉了。

(zhèlǐ běnlái yǒu yī zuò jiù fángzi, xiànzài chāi diào le. )

他本来应该五点到,但是飞机延误了。

(tā běnlái yīnggāi wǔ diǎn dào, dànshì ēijī yánwù le. )

 

原来

Meaning:

  • Originally; at first; in the past

It indicates the situation at present is different from what is was before.

  • Someone realize something that they didn’t know before, or suddenly understand something.

 

Structure:

原来的 + noun

 

Notes:

Abstract/concrete nouns

Previous state may have changed/keep the same

 

e.g.

我不记得这个地方原来的样子了。

(wǒ bù jì de zhè ge dìfang yuánlái de yàngzi le.)

原来昨天给我打电话 的人是你啊!

(yuánlái zuótiān gěi wǒ dǎ diànhuà de rén shì nǐ a!)

 

4.12 – The Comparison Between Two “Whole” 全(quán) vs 全部 (quán bù)

(adj.)

Meaning: Entire; complete

Structure:

  • Scope + /全部 + verb/adjective
  • + organization

 

e.g.

我们全家都很感谢您!

(wǒmen quán jiā dōu hěn gǎnxiè nín! )

我的生日会上,我们班的同学全都来了。

(wǒ de shēngrì huì shang, wǒmen bān de tóngxué quán dōu lái le. )

 

全部

(noun)

Meaning:  Whole, sum

Structure:

  • Scope + /全部 + verb/adjective
  • + noun(disyllable)

 

e.g.

今天的工作我全部都做完了。

(jīntiān de gōngzuò wǒ quánbù dōu zuò wán le. )

这就是我这个月的全部收入。

(zhè jiù shì wǒ zhè ge yuè de quánbù shōurù.)

 

4.13 – The Usages and Comparison Between 对于(duì yú) vs 关于(guān yú)

对于

(preposition.,adverbial)

Meaning:

“对于”focus on drawing forth the object of the attitude or situation.

Structure:

对于 + Subject/subject + 对于

 

e.g.

你对于这个问题,要认真考虑一下。

(nǐ duìyú zhè ge wèntí, yào rènzhēn kǎolǜ yí xià. )

她对于这件礼物非常珍惜。

(tā duì yú zhè jiàn lǐwù fēicháng zhēnxī. )

 

关于

(preposition.,adverbial)

Meaning:

“关于”focus on pointing out the scope or aspect of the situation.

Structure:

关于 + Subject

 

e.g.

关于考试规则的介绍,我就说到这里。

(guānyú kǎoshì guīzé de jièshào, wǒ jiù shuō dào zhè lǐ. )

关于这件礼物,有一个感人的故事。

(guān yú zhè jiàn lǐwù, yǒu yí ge gǎnrén de gùshì. )

 

4.14 – The Usages and Comparison Between 往往(wǎngwǎng) vs 常常(chángcháng)

往往

(adverb)

Meaning:

Generally speaking; normally

  • The action after “往往” happens objectively and irregularly.
  • It’s about a conclusion according to the experience from the past up to present. It cannot be used in the future.

 

e.g.

我上大学的时候,往往一个星期给父母打一次电话。

(wǒ shàng dàxué de shíhou, wǎngwǎng yí ge xīngqī gěi fùmǔ dǎ yí cìdiànhuaà. )

这个城市的春天往往来得比较晚。

(zhège chéngshì de chūntiān wǎngwǎng lái de bǐjiào wǎn. )

 

常常

(adverb)

Meaning:

often; usually

  • The action after “常常” happens frequentlydue to both subjective and objective 
  • It’s about the repetitionof the behavior, can be used both in the past or future.

 

e.g.

你走后,要常常和朋友们联系。

(nǐ zǒu hòu, yào chángcháng hé péngyou men liánxì. )

爷爷常常告诉我,要好好学习。

(yéye chángcháng gàosù wǒ yào hǎo hǎo xuéxí. )

 

4.15 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 既…又/也… (jì……yòu/yě……)

/

 

Meaning:

  • to indicate juxtaposition
  • to show someone or something possesses two kinds of qualities.

 

e.g.

跑步既健康又能减肥。

(Pǎobù jì jiànkānɡ yòu nénɡ jiǎnféi.)

轻音乐既能让人舒服又能让人放松。

(Qīnɡ yīnyuè jì nénɡ rànɡ rén shūfu yòu nénɡ rànɡ rén fànɡsōnɡ.)

 

4.16 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 不是…而是… (bú shì……ér shì……)

不是而是

 

Meaning:

  • 不是 to negate the 1st part while 而是 to affirm the 2nd part.
  • It`s used in comparison to clarify one thing, or used to indicate two aspects of one thing.

 

e.g.

他不是很高,而是非常高。

(Tā búshì hěn ɡāo, érshì fēichánɡ ɡāo.)

我不是不想做,而是没时间做。

(Wǒ búshì bù xiǎnɡ zuò, érshì méi shíjiān zuò.)

 

4.17 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 连…,更不用/更不要说… (lián……ɡènɡ bú yònɡ/ ɡènɡ búyào shuō……)

,更不用/更不要说

 

Meaning:

  • It`s used to emphasize something.
  • 连 can be used with //
  • “更不用/要说” sometimes can be omitted

 

e.g.

他们忙得连午饭也/都没吃。

(Tāmen mánɡ de lián wǔfàn yě/dōu méi chī.)

他连他妈妈的话都不听,还会听我的?

(Tā lián tā māmɑ de huà dōu bù tīnɡ, hái huì tīnɡ wǒ de?)

 

4.18 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 尽管……,可是/仍然/还是…… (jǐnɡuǎn……kě shì/ rénɡ rán/ hái shì……)

尽管……,可是/仍然/还是……

 

Meaning:

  • It indicates a turn in a sentence
  • subject before 还是、仍然; subject after 可是

 

e.g.

尽管汉语很难,我还是要学习汉语。

(Jǐnɡuǎn hànyǔ hěn nán, wǒ háishì yào xuéxí hànyǔ.)

尽管现在是休息时间,我们仍然要工作。

(Jǐnɡuǎn xiànzài shì xiūxi shíjiān, wǒmen rénɡrán yào ɡōnɡzuò.)

 

4.19 – The Usage Summary of 否则…… (fǒuzé……)

否则……

(adverb)

Meaning:

  • It connects two parts of a sentence.
  • It indicates the results of the hypothesis or provides another option.

 

Structure:

…… 否则 + results / another option

…… 否则 + Rhetorical Question

除非……,否则(的话)……

 

e.g.

快点儿,否则要迟到了。

(Kuài diǎn’r, fǒuzé yào chídào le.)

除非下雨,否则的话他每天都会跑步。

(Chúfēi xiàyǔ, fǒuzé de huà tā měitiān dōu huì pǎobù.)

放假了,否则她怎么会来呢?

(Fàngjià le, fǒuzé tā zěnme huì lái ne?)

 

4.20 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 不管/无论…也/都… (bùguǎn/wúlùn…yě/dōu…)

不管/无论/

 

Meaning:

  • the conclusion will never change no matter what happens.
  • 不管/无论 followed by interrogative pronouns /coordinative phrases

 

e.g.

不管/无论大小,一律都收起来。

(Bùɡuǎn/wúlùn dà xiǎo, yílǜ dōu shōu qǐlái.)

不管/无论刮风还是下雨,我都要去跑步。

(Bùɡuǎn/Wúlùn ɡuāfēnɡ háishì xiàyǔ, wǒ dōu yào qù pǎobù.)

 

4.21 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 只要…就/便… (zhǐ yào…jiù / biàn…)

只要/便

 

Structure:

只要+ prerequisite + 就/便 + result

 

Meaning:

  • 只要 indicates the required sufficient condition.
  • 就 followed by the corresponding result.
  • If the 2ndclause is using 是……的 / a rhetorical question  à  就/便 cannot be used.

 

e.g.

只要你愿意,他还会不帮你?

(Zhǐyào nǐ yuànyì, tā hái huì bù bānɡ nǐ?)

他只要肯学,我就愿意教。

(Tā zhǐyào kěn xué, wǒ jiù yuànyì jiāo.)

 

4.22 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 既然…,就/也/还… (jì rán…jiù / yě / hái…)

既然,就//

 

Meaning:

  • It indicates causal relation
  • 既然 used in a clause to indicate established facts
  • 就/也/还 to signify the conclusion based on the given fact.
  • 2ndclause can also be rhetorical questions

 

e.g.

你既然来了,就吃了饭再走吧!

(Nǐ jìrán lái le, jiù chī le fàn zài zǒu bɑ.)

既然你都清楚,那我也不多说了。

(Jìrán nǐ dōu qīnɡchu, nà wǒ yě bù duō shuō le.)

 

4.23 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 即使……,也…… (jíshǐ … yě …)

即使……,也……

 

Meaning:

  • 即使 indicate a hypothesis or compromise
  • Even if + (a hypothesis or compromise) + (something/someone will) still be in process.

 

e.g.

他即使在室内,也要戴墨镜。

(Tā jíshǐ zài shìnèi, yě yào dài mòjìnɡ.)

南方即使是冬天,也不会下雪。

(Nánfānɡ jíshǐ shì dōnɡtiān, yě bú huì xiàxuě.)

 

4.24 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 再……,也…… (zài … yě …)

…… ……

 

Meaning:

  • It indicates concessions in hypothetical sentences
  • No matter how + (the situation/ state/ action is) +(the result still) won’t change.

 

e.g.

再累,明天也得早起赶飞机。

(Zài lèi, mínɡtiān yě děi zǎo qī ɡǎn fēijī.)

你就算再聪明,也解不出这个题。

(Nǐ jiù suàn zài cōnɡmíng, yě jiě bù chū zhè ɡe tí.)

Back To Top