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5.1 – The Two Usages of the Word 所 (suǒ)

1

auxiliary

Structure:

+ verb +

 

e.g.

别动,你所站的位置很危险!

这些信息是我以前所不知道的。

 

2

Measure word

Structure:

____+ + noun

 

e.g.

这所大学已经有一百多年历史了。

这附近有几所邮局?

 

5.2 – The Summary of Pivotal Sentence: 令 (lìng)

Pivotal sentence
make :   “令”

 

Structure:

A B + verb/verbal phrase/adjective/adjective phrase

 

Notes:

A: verb-object phrase

B: subject-predicate phrase

Dynamic auxiliary words “着, 了, 过” cannot exist in this sentence.

 

e.g.

他的行为令我感到很失望。

(Tā de xíngwéi lìng wǒ gǎn dào hěn shīwàng. )

 

这次经历令我难以忘记。

(Zhè cì jīnglì lìng wǒ nán yǐ wàngjì. )

 

5.3 – The Summary of Pivotal Sentence: 派 (pài)

Pivotal sentence
ask/arrange/dispatch :   “派”

 

Structure:

A B + verb/verbal phrase

 

Notes:

A: verb-object phrase

B: subject-predicate phrase

Generally speaking the status of A is higher than B

Dynamic auxiliary words “着, 了, 过” cannot exist in this sentence.

 

e.g.

经理派我去机场接客户。

(Jīnglǐ pài wǒ qù jīchǎng jiē kèhù. )

 

下飞机后,酒店会派车来接您。

(Xià fēijī hòu, jiǔdiàn huì pài chē lái jiē nín. )

 

5.4 – The Summary of Comparison Sentence: A 不如/没有 B(这么/ 那么)+ Adj.

Structure:

A + 不如/没有 + B(这么/ 那么)+ Adj.

 

Meaning:

A is not as …… as B

 

e.g.

这个学校不如/没有那个学校那么安静。

 

深圳的历史不如/没有西安那么长。

 

5.5 – The Five Usages of the Word 于 (yú)

(prep.)

 

  • It draws forth time

+ time

e.g.

中华人民共和国成立于1949年。

(Zhōnghuá rénmín gòng hé guó chénglì yú yī jiǔ sì jiǔ nián. )

 

  • It draws forth location. The meaning is the same as “在”.

+ location

e.g.

他于北京工作了两年,后来出国了。

(Tā yú Běijīng gōngzuò le liǎng nián, hòulái chū guó le. )

 

  • It draws forth the object.

+ object

e.g.

十年来,他一直致力于科学研究。

(Shí nián lái, tā yìzhí zhìlì yú kēxué yánjiū. )

 

  • It draws forth the starting point or reason. The meaning is the same as “从” or “自”.

+ starting point/reason

e.g.

能否成功,取决于你平时的努力。

(Néngfǒu chénggōng ,qǔjué yú nǐ píngshí de nǔlì. )

  • It is used to compare things.

Adjective +

e.g.

这个房间远大于我的房间。

(Zhè ge fángjiān yuǎn dà yú wǒ de fángjiān. )

 

5.6 – The Two Usages of the Word 朝 (cháo)

Meaning & usage 1

(prep.)

It draws forth the direction of an action

Structure:

+ direction + verb

 

e.g.

你朝前走,10分钟后就到那家书店了。

(Nǐ cháo qián zǒu, shí fēnzhōng hòu jiù dào nà jiā shūdiàn le. )

 

Meaning & usage 2

(prep.)

It draws forth the object of an action

Structure:

+ object + verb

 

e.g.

不要总是朝孩子发火,要给他讲道理。

(Bú yào zǒngshì cháo háizi fāhuǒ, yào gěi tā jiǎng dàolǐ. )

 

5.7 – The Comparison between 朝 (cháo) vs 向 (xiàng) vs 往 (wǎng)

朝 (cháo) vs 向 (xiàng)  vs 往 (wǎng)

(prep.)

Meaning:

to;  towards;  in the direction of

  • The direction of movements.

___ + direction + verb

 

  • The direction of facing to.

___ + direction

 

  • ___ +  + direction ( + verb)

 

  • When the verb represents a specific movement:

___ + someone + verb

 

  • When put after verbs as complements:

Verb + ___ + …… 

5.8 – The Comparison Between突然 (tūrán) and 忽然 (hūrán)

突然

  • 突然+(的)+名词

e.g.

这是一起突然的事故。

 

  • 很/太/非常/十分 + 突然

e.g.

事情发生得很/太/非常/十分突然。

 

  • 突然 + 极了/得很

e.g.

事情发生突然极了/得很。

 

  • Verb + 得 +(……)突然

e.g.

事故发生得那么突然。

 

  • Others

e.g.

你认为发生这样的事情突然吗?

 

忽然

(Adverbial modifier)

e.g.

我忽然明白了。

 

5.9 – The Comparison Between以及 (yǐ jí) and 和 (hé)

以及 vs 和

(conjunction)

Meaning:

“and”, connecting the words or phrases in parallel relationship

 

以及:

  • Used in written Chinese

e.g.

他在艺术领域以及科技领域都有很大的成就。

 

  • Sometimes, the word or phrase before “以及” is more important or earlier than the one after.

e.g.

这篇论文介绍了人工智能的背景、意义、现状以及影响。

 

  • ……,以及……

(the pause before 以及 is allowed)

e.g.

请介绍一下这部电影的大意,以及你的观后感。

 

和:

  • Used in oral Chinese

e.g.

他和我都生于1980年。

 

  • “和” connects the words or phrases in equal relationship.

e.g.

小红和小明取得了这次考试的并列第一名。

 

  • ……和……

(the pause before 和 is not allowed)

e.g.

他常常回大学的城市看望老师和同学们。

 

5.10 – The Comparison Between便 (biàn) and 就 (jiù)   便 vs 就

Meaning:

  • Which indicate that the 2nd thing happens immediately after the 1st one
  • Which emphasize what is followed after it
  • 如果/只要/因为/既然……,便/就……

 

便:

Only in written Chinese

 

就:

  • Both in written Chinese and oral Chinese
  • Which indicate the scope or emphasize numbers.

 

5.11 – The Comparison Between一直 (yìzhí) and 始终 (shǐzhōng)

一直 vs 始终

(adv.)

From the beginning to the end

Structure:

始终/一直 + verb

 

e.g.

我们始终/一直坚持正确的做法。

 

一直

1) 一直 + words of time

e.g.

我们一直画到凌晨3点。

 

2) Refer to the Future:

only use 一直

e.g.

他不出来见我,我就一直在这里等。

 

5.12 – The Comparison Between多亏 (duō kuī) and 幸亏 (xìng kuī)

多亏 vs 幸亏

Meaning:

as a result of someone`s help or some favourable conditions, something bad is avoided or something good is achieved.

 

Difference

多亏 + noun/pronoun √

幸亏 + noun/pronoun ×

 

多亏 + 了 √

幸亏 + 了 ×

 

多亏

Grateful mood

Due to someone’s help, something good is achieved.

 

幸亏

Lucky mood

Thanks to an objective reason, something bad is avoided

 

5.13 – The Comparison Between连忙 (liánmáng) & 急忙 (jí máng) & 匆忙 (cōngmáng)

连忙 vs 急忙

(adv.)

Cannot be followed by “地”.

 

连忙:indicate reacting quickly to something

急忙:indicate something is urgent or someone is worried about something.

e.g.

见到客人进来,他们连忙说“欢迎光临”。

还有五分钟就要开会了,她急忙把资料收拾好。

 

匆忙

(adj.)

In a hurry

Structure:

Degree adverb + 匆忙

 

E.g

昨天走得太匆忙,没来得及和你说一声。

 

5.14 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 不但不/不但没有…,反而… (búdàn bù / búdàn méi yǒu…fǎn’ér…)

Structure:

Subject + 不但不/没有……,反而 ……

 

Meaning:

To indicate a progressive relationship, the result after 反而 is unexpected to the speaker.

 

Sub. + 不但不/没有 + [Wanted Outcome],反而 + [Unexpected Outcome]

 

e.g.

吃了这药,感冒不但没好,反而更严重了。

 

5.15 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 宁可…,也不/也要… (nìngkě…, yě bù / yě yào…)

Structure 宁可,也不

The speaker is choosing between two options, the preferable option first while both are unfavorable.

 

e.g.

我宁可离婚,也不愿意将就过日子。

 

Structure:宁可,也要

宁可 + unfavorable option, 也要 + things (that the speaker desire or intend to do)

 

e.g.

小孩子宁可不吃饭,也要继续玩。

 

5.16 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 与其…,不如… (yǔ qí…, bù rú…)

与其……,不如……

(prefer… rather than…)

To speakerB is much better than A

 

Meaning:

To connect two options, to speaker,part after 不如 is much better than that after 与其

 

e.g.

与其坐火车,不如坐飞机更快。

 

5.17 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 万一……,(就)…… (wànyī…, jiù…)

万一……,(就)……

 

Meaning:

to be used for an estimation which the speaker considers things that rarely happen.

 

Notes:

(often refer to something bad or accidents)

 

e.g.

他万一不行,你就代替他上场。

 

你把钥匙拿着,万一他不在家,你就自己开门。

 

5.18 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 幸亏……,不然…… (xìngkuī…, bùrán…)

幸亏……,不然……

 

Meaning:

To indicate that thanks to some favorable conditions or reasons, something negative or bad things didn’t happen.

 

e.g.

幸亏车来了,不然我们都得迟到。

 

5.19 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 除非……,不然…… (chúfēi…, bùrán…)

除非……,不然……

 

Meaning:

The condition after 除非 is unique, and 不然 introduces the result that will be without the condition.

 

e.g.

除非是他邀请我,不然我是不会去的。

 

5.20 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 哪怕……,也/还…… (nǎpà…, yě/hái…)

哪怕……,也/……

 

Meaning:

哪怕 introduces a hypothesis, the part after 也/还 is used to say in spite of it, the previous conditions or decisions will never change.

 

e.g.

哪怕只有一个观众,她也要演下去。

 

5.21 – The Usage Summary of the Sentence Structure 为……所…… (wéi … suǒ…)

…………

 

Structure:

+ noun/noun phrases + + verb

 

e.g.

法官为这个孩子的诚实所感动。

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