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6.1 – The Usage Summary of the Word 上下

  • Refer to space: upper and lower; up and down

(上下 + noun)

e.g.

他的新房子非常大,上下共三层。

 

  • Refer to personnel: 上下 or 上上下下 (上级&下级;长辈&晚辈)

e.g.

马上过年了,全家上下都很开心。

 

  • Indicate a round number : Quantifiers +  上下

(年龄;重量)

e.g.

他的父母都在五十岁上下。

 

  • Indicate (of level / degree) relative superiority / inferiority:

不相上下,难分上下

e.g.

这些孩子的智商都不相上下。

 

6.2 – The Usage Summary of the Word 人家

Personal Pronoun

[rén jia]

  • Refer to someone mentioned above: 他 or 他们

e.g.

虽然他只是个孩子,你也要尊重人家。

  • 别人:others; everybody else

e.g.

你要保护自己,不要被人家欺负。

  • 我 :refer to the speaker himself/herself

e.g.

你答应人家的事情别忘了哦!

Noun

[rén jiā]

  • 住户 / 家庭: household or family

e.g.

这个村子有一百多户人家。

 

  • Refer to family of a girl`s betrothed

e.g.

这个女孩子已经有人家了。

 

6.3 – The Usage Summary of the Word 番 (fān)

1. Verbal Classifier:

  • modify an action which is time–consuming or energy-consuming

 

Structure: / +

To indicate multiple

Structure: + Numeral words +

  • To indicate multiple“-fold; times”

e.g.

劝了他几番后,他不再哭了。

今年的房租翻了两番。

 

2. Nominal Classifier:

  • modify thoughts, speeches, process

e.g.

他的一/几番话,让我突然醒悟。

 

6.4 – The Two Usages of the Word 不妨 (bùfáng)

不妨

Adv.

Meaning:

Advise someone to do something as it is harmless.

 

1)  不妨 + 重叠动词 / 动词性短语

e.g.

你不妨试试,可能有惊喜。

对孩子不妨多夸奖他们

 

2)  重叠动词 / 动词性短语 + 也 + 不妨

e.g.

演讲都开始了,我们听听也不妨。

只要你喜欢,我们走路也不妨。

 

6.5 – The Two Sentence Structures of明明 (míngmíng)

明明

Adv.

Meaning: clearly, apparently

  1. ……,明明……
  2. 明明……,……

Note:

The first part of the structure 1 and the second part of the structure 2 can be Rhetorical question or Short transition sentence.

e.g.

  • 明明看见他进房间了,现在怎么不见了呢?
  • 你心里明明很开心,还假装生气。

 

6.6 – The Usage Summary of the Word 偏偏 (piān piān)

偏偏

Adv.

Meaning: refer to the scope; “only; alone”

Tone: 不满

……subject + 偏偏 +……

 

  1. against logic or other people`s requirement on purpose.

e.g.

我叫他别去,可他偏偏不听。

 

  1. actual situation is not what one needs or wishes for.

e.g.

我需要他时,他偏偏不在。

 

6.7 – The Usage and Structure Summary of 连同 (liántóng)

连同

Conj.

Meaning: 和 ;与

 

A连同B

  • the nominal parts of A and B are related in meanings or belong to one whole thing.

e.g.

这个包连同上次买的包一共花了500块。

 

连同……, subject + ……

  • can be used before the Subjectwith a pause, and normally there are quantity phrases in the sentence.

e.g.

连同刚才那碗饭,他一共吃了四碗饭了。

 

6.8 – The Usage and Structure of 而已

而已

Modal particle

 

  ……/不过/仅仅……而已

  • Express one’s slight disdain or resigned tone

e.g.

别误会!她不过是个普通朋友而已

我这次赢得汉语比赛第一名不过是运气而已

 

6.9 – The Summary of the Pivotal Sentence 嫌 (xián)

Meaning: dislike, dissatisfy

 

Subject  +    +  someone  +  phrases

 

  • The object of 嫌 is also the subject of the verb after 嫌

e.g.

孩子嫌这个菜难吃。

 

6.10 – The Comparison Between the Words 不免(bùmiǎn) vs 未免(wèimiǎn)

不免

Meaning: inevitably

  • be used to say it`s not easy to avoid something objectively
  1. ……不免

e.g.

他这么做,别人不免议论

 

  1. 不免 + Affirmative multi-syllable verbs / Adjectivs

e.g.

路上一直堵车,他不免着急。

 

未免

Meaning: rather, a bit too, truly

  • to negate some unreasonable situations with an emphasis on judging them.

 

6.11 – The Comparison Between the Words 时而 (shí’ér) vs 不时 (bùshí)

时而

Adv.

Meaning: indicate something happens repeatedly and not regularly

 

时而 + Verbal Phrases

e.g.

远方时而传来鸟叫声。

 

时而……,时而……

e.g.

天气时而冷,时而热。

 

不时

Adv.

Meaning: indicate something happens repeatedly and not regularly

 

不时(地) + Verbal Phrases

e.g.

远方不时(地)传来鸟叫声。

 

6.12 – The Comparison Between the Words 特意 (tèyì) vs 故意 (gùyì) vs 特别 (tèbié)

特意

Meaning: To do something for specific purposes

特意 + Verb

e.g.

我特意给你买的粥。

你特意注意一下那个人。

 

故意

Meaning: To do something that one expects not to be allowed to do

e.g.

为了不上课,他故意装病。

 

特别:

特别 + Verb

特别 + Adj./Psychological Verb

e.g.

你特别注意一下那个人。

今天我特别高兴。

 

6.13 – The Comparison Between the Words 以致 (yǐzhì) vs 以至 (yǐzhì)

以致

Meaning:

  • in a cause-effect compound sentence;
  • to introduce the result of the clause before it.

Use:

  • stress a bad or undesirable result

e.g.

她出发晚了,以致没赶上火车。

 

以至

Meaning:

  • in a cause-effect compound sentence;
  • to introduce the result of the clause before it.

Use:

  • stress a neutral result
  • to indicate the extension of time, quantity, degree, scope etc.

 

e.g.

科学技术发展迅速,以至很多科幻小说里的情节变成了现实。

这个项目要延续到明年,以至大后年。

 

6.14 – The Comparison Between the Words 虽然 (suīrán) vs 固然 (gùrán)

虽然

Meaning: more about making a concession

Position: before or after subject

 

虽然 + Subject + …… / Subject + 虽然 + …

 

e.g.

虽然他没来,我还是给他留了位置。

 

固然

Meaning: more about admitting a fact

Position: Subject +

 

Subject + 固然 + …

 

e.g.

这台电脑固然好,那台也不错。

 

Note:

when two clauses are contradictory固然 and 虽然 can replace each otherotherwise, can’t replace.

 

6.15 – The Summary of the Sentence Structure …固然…,但是/也 ……

固然

Conj.

Meaning: It indicates that you admit a fact first, and then shift to a turn or make a further explanation.

 

A + 固然……,但是/可是/不过/……

(Although A has advantages, A also has disadvantages.)

e.g.

房子的设计我固然喜欢,但是周围太吵了。

 

A + 固然……B + ……

(when the meanings of Clause1 and Clause2 are not contradictory)

e.g.

他固然有错,你也有错。

 

6.16 – The Summary of the Sentence Structure ……,反之(fǎnzhī) ……

反之

Conj.

反之 is used between two clauses, sentence or paragraphs to lead to an opposite meaning.

Meaning: 相反、反过来说、反过来做

(whereas;on the contrary)

 

e.g.

你考试成绩越好得到的奖励越大,反之则越小。

 

6.17 – The Summary of the Sentence Structure 凡是……,……

凡是

Adv.

所有,一切  “all, every”

Position: before the subject

 

()……(+ noun)(,)()……

e.g.

凡是会说汉语的请站起来。

 

6.18 – The Summary of the Sentence Structure 鉴于……,……

Conj.

鉴于 + clause 1, clause 2

  • used before the whole sentence to indicate the result based on the previous reason or reference.

e.g.

鉴于你这次的表现不错,我决定给你满分。

 

Prep.

鉴于 + Noun/Nominal Phrases, Clause

  • indicate thinking about something on basis of a certain situation.

e.g.

鉴于你的身份,你不方便出席本次会议。

 

6.19 – The Summary of the Sentence Structure ……,以免……

……,以免……

Conj.

Meaning: 免得,避免  “in case, in order to avoid”

1st clause: the action

2nd clause: the bad results

The bad result can be avoided by doing what is mentioned in the first clause.

 

e.g.

我们得经常运动,以免身体不健康。

 

6.20 – The Summary of the Sentence Structure 到……为止

……为止

  • 到 + 目前/现在/此…… + 为止

为止:be up to

indicate time or rate of progress

 

e.g.

到目前为止,我们还不能确定有没有外星人。

我们的关系到此为止

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