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The Grammar Summary of “了” in Chinese

1.  As a modal particle, “了” is used at the end of a sentence to indicate something has already happened.


他去学校了。(Tā qù xuéxiào le.)

He went to school.

我们结婚一年了。(Wǒmen jiéhūn yī nián le.)

We got married for 1 year.

我和他去看电影了。(Wǒ hé tā qù kàn diànyǐng le.)

He and I went to watch movie.


2. As a dynamic auxiliary, “了” is used after verbs to refer to the completion of an action. It`s often followed by quantifiers.


去年我看了10本书。(Qùnián wǒ kànle 10 běn shū.)

I read 10 books last year.

我买了很多衣服。(Wǒ mǎile hěnduō yīfu.)

I bought lots of clothes.

我吃了午饭。(Wǒ chīle wǔfàn.)

I have had lunch.


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