Discovering the nuances of language is a fascinating journey, especially when it comes to understanding how different cultures express similar ideas. Take, for instance, the concept of “often” in English and its equivalents in Mandarin Chinese. While the adverbs 常常 (cháng cháng) and 往往 (wǎng wǎng) both translate to “often,” their usage can reveal distinct meanings in different situations. In this article, we’ll explore the differences between these two adverbs and discover how their usage can enhance our understanding of Mandarin Chinese.
(Plus, if you’re interested in improving your grammar skills, be sure to check out our HSK tutorial videos!)
1、The adverb 常常(cháng cháng) means that an action happens many times, regardless of whether it is done regularly or not. On the other hand, 往往(wǎng wǎng) implies that an action happens frequently under specific or regularly timed circumstances. With 往往(wǎng wǎng), the situation, condition, or result related to the action being discussed needs to be specified, while 常常(cháng cháng) has no such limitations.
He often works overtime.
他常常加班。(Tā cháng cháng jiā bān.)
He tends to work overtime at the end of the year.
他往往年底加班。(Tā wǎng wǎng nián dǐ jiā bān.)
2、You can use 常常(cháng cháng) to express hopes or desires, indicating actions that have not yet taken place but may happen repeatedly. On the other hand, 往往(wǎng wǎng) describes the current situation, indicating actions that are already happening regularly or have happened regularly in the past.
Let’s go watch movies often.
(Wǒmen cháng cháng qù kàn diànyǐng ba.)
They often watch movies on weekends.
(Zhōumò tāmen wǎng wǎng qù kàn diànyǐng.)
3、You can use 常常(cháng cháng) to describe events that have happened, are happening or will happen frequently. On the other hand, 往往(wǎng wǎng) is mostly used for describing past events, although it can be used for present events. It cannot be used for events that are set in the future.
When I was young, Mom often used to tell me stories.
(Wǒ xiǎo shíhòu, māma cháng cháng gěi wǒ jiǎng gùshì.)
The manager often gets to the company half an hour early.
(Jīnglǐ cháng cháng tíqián bàn gè xiǎo shí dào gōngsī.)
I will come to visit you often.
(Wǒ huì cháng cháng lái kàn nín de.)
4、You can use 不常(bù cháng) to negate 常常(cháng cháng), meaning “not often”. However, there is no negative form for 往往(wǎng wǎng), and it is instead negated by adding 不/没 (bù/méi) to the sentence.
不 + 常
往往 + 不/没
We live close, but don’t often keep in touch.
(Wǒ men zhù de hěn jìn，dànshì bù cháng liánxì.)
On rainy days, it’s not often easy to get a taxi.
(Xià yǔ tiān, wǎng wǎng bù róngyì dǎ chē.)
You can use 常常(cháng cháng) in questions, but 往往(wǎng wǎng) cannot be used in the same way.
Do you watch TV often?
(Nǐ cháng cháng kàn diànshì ma?)
5、 You can use the shortened version 常(cháng) for 常常(cháng cháng), but you cannot do the same for 往往(wǎng wǎng) by using just 往(wǎng). Also, 常常(cháng cháng) indicates a frequently occurring action that may be commonplace or regular, whereas 往往(wǎng wǎng) points to a less common phenomenon, often surprising or unexpected.
It is often windy here.
(Zhè lǐ cháng (cháng) guā fēng.)
When it snows, it is often not cold.
(Xià xuě shí wǎng wǎng bù lěng.)
In summary, while both 常常(cháng cháng) and 往往(wǎng wǎng) can be translated as “often” in English, their usage and implications in Mandarin Chinese differ significantly. Understanding the nuances between the two adverbs can greatly improve your ability to communicate effectively in Mandarin Chinese. Whether you’re a beginner or an advanced learner, mastering the proper usage of these adverbs will help you become a more fluent and confident speaker. So next time you’re communicating in Mandarin Chinese, remember to choose your adverb wisely to convey the precise meaning you intend.
Now let’s practice! Fill in the blanks with“常常(cháng cháng)” or “往往(wǎng wǎng)” :
- 不要____晚睡，对身体不好。(Don’t stay up late often, it’s bad for your health.)
- 公立博物馆____不收费。(The public museum is usually free. )
- 春节时，火车票____不好买。(It’s usually not easy to buy train tickets during the Spring Festival.)
- 他____迟到。(He often arrives late.)
- 成功的人_____都有积极的心态。(Usually, successful people have a positive attitude.)
- 他____做饭。(He doesn’t cook often.)